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White Papers

  • Diverse Nut Materials for a Wide Range of Application Conditions
    Diverse Nut Materials for a Wide Range of Application Conditions

    The nut is the key component in the leadscrew assembly. It serves as a linkage between rotary element (motor and screw) and linearly moving load to accomplish rotary to linear motion.

  • Grundlagen des Einsatzes von Aktuatoren mit Hybrid-Schrittmotoren in Konstruktionen aller Art
    Applying Hybrid Stepper Actuators to Any Design

    Hybrid Stepper Motors are termed hybrid because they combine features of both Variable Reluctance (VR) and Permanent Magnet (PM) motors.

  • Actuator Sizing & Life Estimation
    How to find the best actuator size with life estimation

    Sizing a linear actuator and estimating life are done quite easily once you understand the basic needs of the application.

  • Noise Vibration in Lead Screw Driven Motion Designs White Paper
    Dealing with noise vibration in lead screw driven motion designs

    Leadscrews — especially those with high-accuracy threads — can be a low-vibration alternative to other linear-motion options. That’s in part because of the consistent contact between their load-bearing mating subcomponents.

  • What are Dual Motion Hybrid Actuators and Where Do They Excel

    Some motion applications need axes to deliver both linear and rotary motion. Conventional designs for such functionality are often complicated and bulky. What’s more, rotary motors put to linear motion often have output shafts that are inadequate for supporting heavy side loads.

  • How to Specify Custom Lead Screws

    This white paper will discuss the increasingly use of Lead Screws to produce linear motion when accuracy and reliability are critical. The value offered by custom solutions makes lead screws a favorite whenever price and cost of ownership matter. For many designers and engineers accustomed to the constraints of standard configurations, exploiting the benefits of a custom lead screw can be challenging. Here are some suggestions to help get the most from a custom design.

  • All Electric Motors are Stepping Motors

    If you create two magnetic fields of opposite polarities, they will attract each other, creating motion. If one of the magnetic fields is fixed on a shaft, you have rotary motion of some angle. Now to continue this rotary motion, you have to create a new magnetic field at a different position.

  • Hybrid vs Canstack White Paper
    Hybrid vs Canstack

    This white paper discusses why a size 17 Hybrid Linear Motor Actuator with an input wattage rating of 7 watts has better performance than a Can Stack Motor Actuator with an input rating of 10 watts. The answer is the efficiency of the motor itself. The average Hybrid Motor Actuator is about 65% efficient while a Can Stack Motor Actuator averages 25% efficiency. There are 2 primary reasons for these differences in efficiency.

  • Lead Screw Linear Actuators When to Apply
    When to apply lead screw linear actuators

    A common way to generate precise linear motion is to use an electric motor (rotary motion) and pair it with a lead screw to generate a linear actuation system. Depending upon what this linear actuator interfaces with it can be constructed in a number of different ways. Here we will discuss several different ways to combine a lead screw and nut with a stepper motor to create a linear actuator system. The stepper motor is frequently used in motion control as it is a cost effective technology that does not require position feedback to operate correctly.

  • Lead Screws 101
    Lead Screws 101

    In many devices lead screw assemblies are used to convert motion from rotary to linear and vice-versa. Historically, these assemblies have had poor efficiencies and relied on grease for improved performance. Over the past few decades the advent of engineered polymers and new manufacturing capabilities have changed the game for the conventional lead screw assembly making it a powerful solution for motion based design challenges. At first glance lead screw assemblies seem rudimentary, but they are designed to perform a very specific function, and even with the latest developments in materials and manufacturing processes having a basic understanding of how lead screws operate can be the difference between a successful design and catastrophic failure.

  • Creating Linear Motion, One Step at a Time
    Linear Motion Explained, One Step At a Time

    Sizing a linear actuator and estimating life are done quite easily once you understand the basic needs of the application. The following is the minimum information needed to begin this process.

  • Stepper Motor Drives Some Factors that will help Determine Proper Selection
    Factors to consider when selecting the proper stepper motor drive

    This paper discusses some methods of testing Stepper Motors and Stepper Linear Actuators; information about the typical types of Stepper Drives; and the effects of various applied voltage levels and of reduced levels of phase current for these motors.

  • Pressure Velocity and Lead Screw Assemblies
    Pressure Velocity and Lead Screw Assemblies

    Pressure velocity (PV) is a fundamental property of all plastics, and is specific to the composition of the plastic. PV for a lead screw application is a calculated value based on load and surface speed of the interface between the leadscrew and nut. Limiting PV is a term used by manufacturers to characterize the amount of heat generation a plastic can withstand before compromising physical properties such as the geometry of the part. Every plastic has a maximum PV value defined by the manufacturer, which should only be exceeded under specific circumstances. Manufacturer’s limiting PV values should be considered to make decisions on proper loading, speed, and duty cycle of the assembly. The following will explain PV and why it is important, basic example for calculating PV in a leadscrew application, and what happens when the PV of a material is exceeded.

  • Stepper Motor Linear Actuators
    Stepper Motor Linear Actuators 101

    Suppose you, as an engineer, are tasked to design a machine or part of a machine that requires precise linear positioning. How would you go about accomplishing this? What is the most straightforward and effective method? When students are trained in classic mechanical engineering, they are taught to construct a system using conventional mechanical components to convert rotary into linear motion. Converting rotary to linear motion can be accomplished by several mechanical means using a motor, rack and pinion, belt and pulley, and other mechanical linkages. The most effective way to accomplish this rotary to linear motion, however, is within the motor itself.

  • Stepper Motors the Effect of Acceleration Ramps
    Stepper Motors And Their Impact on Acceleration Ramps

    This white paper explains stand test methodology for generating force versus velocity curves and the benefits of adding acceleration and deceleration ramps.

  • Supporting Linear Motion - Implementing Dynamic Load Support
    Supporting Linear Motion - Implementing Dynamic Load Support

    Support mechanics are one of the most critical components in a linear motion design. They set the stage for the achievable performance in almost every metric. Options for components and methods range a broad span of capability and cost. Being able to identify key components while understanding the loading conditions and how they react with the support geometry will allow for an efficient and successful design. It’s important that the requirements of the system are well defined before putting pen to paper on the support mechanics design; this is discussed in “Navigating the Complexities of Motion Systems from Definition to Completion”. The following serves as an aid in load guidance design for linear motion control applications and identifies options to meet performance and cost targets in component selection and support mechanic geometry.

  • Navigating the Complexities of Motion Systems
    Navigating the Complexities of Motion Systems

    Now more than ever there are more options for motion design solutions from a wide variety of manufacturers covering a long list of varied technologies. It can be intimidating trying to navigate this sea-of-solutions if you do not understand some of the basic strengths and weaknesses of these technologies and which options naturally can be paired based on the project need for performance and cost. Having this knowledge can give engineers the competitive edge needed to beat out the competition on price and performance, as well as reduce the concept-to-release timeline by avoiding the need for costly redesigns. When possible, working directly with a vertically integrated supplier can be one of the best options for initial and continuing design support. The following will serve as a guide to understanding some of the basic options from components to controls, and some of the design considerations when selecting each device in an axis or system of motion.

  • Satisfy Application Needs With Versatile Brushed DC and Brushless DC Motors
    Satisfy Application Needs With Versatile Brushed DC and Brushless DC Motors

    Brushed dc and brushless dc motors must be compatible with and satisfy critical motion-system parameters. These include the application voltage supply, overall footprint, target design life, continuous speed, and continuous torque requirements.

  • Selecting the Proper Stepper Drive
    Selecting the Proper Stepper Drive

    Stepper Motors and Stepper-Based Linear Actuators are often selected for open-loop motion control devices and equipment. These can be found in a wide range of products and systems such as: laboratory equipment, medical devices, vision systems, analytical equipment, office products, semiconductor equipment, aerospace, communications systems and light industrial equipment.

  • Applying DC Motors in Linear Motion Applications
    Applying DC Motors in Linear Motion Applications

    Linear motion systems are found inside countless machines… precision laser cutting systems, laboratory automation equipment, semiconductor fabrication machines, CNC machines, factory automation, and many others too numerous to list. They range from the relatively simple, such as an inexpensive seat actuator in a passenger vehicle, to a complex multi-axis coordinate system, complete with control and drive electronics for closed loop positioning. No matter how simple or complex the linear motion system, at the most basic level they all have one thing in common… moving a load through a linear distance in a specific amount of time.

  • Brushless Motors Winding Parameters - What they Mean and How to Chose
    What do brushless motor's winding parameters mean and how to choose?

    When designing a Brushless Motor into your application there is more to consider than just the torque rating. Choosing a proper winding is crucial for proper operation.

  • Comparing Slotted vs Slotless Brushless DC Motors
    Comparing Slotted vs Slotless Brushless DC Motors

    Slotless brushless DC motors represent a unique and compelling subset of motors within the larger category of brushless DC motors. They are called “slotless” because typical slotted brushless DC motors contain a stator core of laminated steel composed of slots separated by teeth around which copper wire is wound. The windings in slotless motors are made possible by specialized winding process technology, such as the Parallex windings offered by PITTMAN.

  • Connecting Brushless DC Motors to Electronic Controllers
    How to Connect Brushless DC Motors to an Electronic Controller

    Connecting brushless DC motors to electronic motor controllers is complicated by the fact that motor phase leads and sensor leads must be connected in a precise phase configuration to the electronic motor controller for proper operation. Many times the information required determining the proper motor sensor and phase lead connection to the electronic motor controller is inaccessible, and must be obtained by measurement. This paper explains the importance of the phasing relationship between motor sensor and phase leads, and how the relationship can be measured. Finally it explains how to ensure proper connection of the motor phase and signal leads to the electronic motor controller.

  • DC Brush Commutated vs Brushless Motors
    DC Brush Commutated vs Brushless Motors

    Each of these DC motor types convert electrical energy into mechanical energy through the interaction of magnetic fields. This discussion will be based on the latest technology whereby one of those fields is produced by a permanent magnet and the other field is generated by passing an electric current through the motor windings.

  • Finding the Right Motor Gearbox Combination to Optimize Performance
    Finding the Right Motor Gearbox Combination to Optimize Performance

    This white paper will discuss the steps necessary to select the right motor-gearbox combination for an application and calculate its final torque and speed to help predict performance. When paired with a motor, gearboxes offer a number of mechanical and economical advantages. For instance, they increase output torque while reducing output speed to improve operational efficiency and overall performance. They help match motor inertia to load inertia to optimize system response. And they offer a cost-effective and compact solution for space-constrained applications. Typically, it is advantageous to incorporate a gearbox with a motor when system speeds are low and torques are high. Low speeds are defined as anything under 100 RPM (about 10.5 rad/sec), and high torques are defined as those over 100 oz-in (about 0.706 Newton-meters).

  • Incremental Encoder Signals White Paper
    Incremental Encoder Signals 101

    Incremental encoders are used on servo motors as feedback devices to determine position and direction. Motor controllers can also use the position information from the encoder to calculate velocity for speed control. The incremental encoder is a critical component that provides important data necessary for the automatic control of a variety of motion systems, from autonomous vehicles to vending machines.

  • Reimagining Reflective Encoders White Paper
    Reimagining Reflective Encoders

    Traditionally, Reflective Encoders have been considered a lower end option used when cost was more important than options. The Pittman E30C and E30D reflective encoder can turn that theory upside down.

  • Temperature Effects on DC Motor Performance White Paper
    Temperature Effects on DC Motor Performance

    When applying DC motors to any type of application, temperature effects need to be considered in order to properly apply the motor. Performance will change as the motor temperature changes. When reviewing DC motor curves, the user needs to ask the question “Do these curves represent performance of the motor at room temperature, or do these curves illustrate performance at the maximum rated temperature?” Depending on the temperature and the required operating point on the motor curve, the performance difference between “cold” and “hot” conditions can be significant.